The influence of fuel premium and pertamax with the time frame service of a motor vehicle

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

 

I.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

            Statistics is the study of how to plan, collect, analyze, interpret, and present the data. In short, statistics is a science that deals with the data. The term ‘ statistics ‘ (United Kingdom: statistics) in contrast to ‘ statistics ‘ (statistics). Statistics is the science that deals with the data, statistics are data, information, or the results of the application of statistical algorithms at some data. Of data collection, statistics may be used to summarize or describe data; This is called descriptive statistics. Most of the basic concepts of statistics assumes probability theory. Some statistical terms such as: population, sample, sample unit, and probability.

            Many statistics are applied in different disciplines, natural sciences (e.g. astronomy and biology and the social sciences (including psychology and sociology), as well as in the fields of business, economics, and industry. Also used in government statistics for a variety of purposes; population census is one of the most known procedure. Other statistical applications which are now popular is a procedure the poll or poll (conducted before the elections), as well as a quick poll (a quick count election results) or the quick count. In the field of computing, statistics can also be applied in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

            We took a sample of cases collected in real and can be analyzed on an ongoing basis and presenting that data in writing this paper. Here we sampled as much as 12 which can be analyzed using the method of% u201CDistribusi% u201D t. We use the t Distribution for sample taken & lt; 30.

 

 

 

 

I.2 PROBLEM FORMULATION

  • What effect obtained from different fuel use?
  • What impact of fuel use used by each consumers?
  • When consumers do service to their vehicles with fuel use they use each?
  • Why consumers chose fuel use rates differ by premium more? Anyone were parties use this?
  • How we examine the case using 12 samples?

            So, it can be said whether there is influence gained from the use of different fuels. Usually from the vehicle’s engine, the fast is broken or not. Consumers are usually doing a service by an average of 1 month. Consumers are also different in choosing fuel is usually due to some factor that is usually based on economic factors and put aside the level of quality. And we resolve the problem by using the t distribution.

 

I.3 LIMIT PROBLEM

            A kind of fuel oil gasoline is a general name for several species of bbm that are reserved for machinery by burning it with a ignition. In indonesia there are some kind of fuel type of gasoline having value the quality of burning different. The value of the quality of a kind of bbm gasoline this count based on the value of ron ( randon otcane number ). Based on ron was then bbm gasoline differentiated into three types namely:

– Premium ( ron 88 ): premium is kind of the distillate fuel oil colored a clear yellowish. A yellow color was caused by the presence of coloring substance an additional ( dye ). The use of premium in general is to fuel bermesin gasoline motor vehicle as: cars, motorcycles, outboard and others. Fuel is often also called motor gasoline or petrol.

– Pertamax (RON 92) : intended for vehicles that require high-octane fuel use and no lead (unleaded). Builtin is also recommended for vehicles produced above 1990 especially who have used the technology on par with electronic fuel injection and catalytic converters.

– Pertamax Plus (RON 95) :  The type of FUEL it has to meet the standards of performance International World Wide Fuel Charter (WWFC). Intended for advanced technology vehicles that require high-octane fuel use and environmentally friendly. Builtin Plus is recommended for vehicles that have a compression ratio & gt; 10.5 as well as using technology Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI), Variable Valve Timing Intelligent (VVTI), (VTI), Turbochargers and catalytic converters.

            In this paper we will discuss his work on as much detail as possible from the influence of premium fuel and motor vehicles especially against builtin (motorcycles), how many periods of service vehicles due to the use of premium fuel and the builtin. Similarly, many as a result of the use of premium and builtin on motor vehicles.

Indonesian to English (powered by Sederet v0.00001.n4-s2)

 

I.4 RESEARCH PURPOSES

  • To know what effect obtained from fuel use different.
  • To know when consumers do service to their vehicles with fuel use they use each.
  • To know why consumers choose fuel different with use rates premium more.
  • To knowing how we were to scan the case by using samples some 12.

 

I.5 Researcher Methodology

            In writing a piece of writing is one method, we use namely distribution t because samples used in this distribution & it; 30. Where we gather in real and can be analyzed twelve people that we will make as samples into writing this paper.

 

 

 

CHAPTER II

CONTENT

 

II.1 THEORETICAL

            A kind of fuel oil gasoline is a general name for several species of BBM that are reserved for machinery by burning it with a ignition. In indonesia there are some kind of fuel type of gasoline having value the quality of burning different. The value of the quality of a kind of BBM gasoline this count based on the value of ron ( randon otcane number ). Based on ron was then BBM gasoline differentiated into three types namely:

– Premium ( ron 88 ): premium is kind of the distillate fuel oil colored a clear yellowish. A yellow color was caused by the presence of coloring substance an additional ( dye ). The use of premium in general is to fuel bermesin gasoline motor vehicle as: cars, motorcycles, outboard and others. Fuel is often also called motor gasoline or petrol.

– Pertamax (RON 92) : intended for vehicles that require high-octane fuel use and no lead (unleaded). Builtin is also recommended for vehicles produced above 1990 especially who have used the technology on par with electronic fuel injection and catalytic converters.

– Pertamax Plus (RON 95) :  The type of FUEL it has to meet the standards of performance International World Wide Fuel Charter (WWFC). Intended for advanced technology vehicles that require high-octane fuel use and environmentally friendly. Builtin Plus is recommended for vehicles that have a compression ratio & gt; 10.5 as well as using technology Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI), Variable Valve Timing Intelligent (VVTI), (VTI), Turbochargers and catalytic converters.

II.2 CALCULATION

            We have been on research with the test influence between a fuel used with a term of service to the vehicle motorcycles and take a random sample as many as 12 a person who uses fuel type different. A period of time service that is performed by each cycler a motor is in to do service by using fuel type different is as follows:

 

NO

NAME

GASOLINE

PERIODS OF SERVICE

(1X n day)

PREMIUM

PERTAMAX

1

Adit

X

1 x 30 day

2

Amer

X

1 x 60 day

3

Dani

X

1 x 45 day

4

Feril

X

1 x 90 day

5

Husen

X

1 x 60 day

6

Ibnu

X

1 x 60 day

7

Ihsan

X

1 x 60 day

8

Ilham

X

1 x 30 day

9

Iqbal

X

1 x 60 day

10

M. Ilham

X

1 x 45 day

11

Mario

X

1 x 60 day

12

Nando

x

1 x 60 day

 

By using the level of significance 2 %, can it be deduced that there is a significant difference between the use of fuel premium and pertamax?

Finalization :

  1. Hypothesis testing is conducted to determine what happened to the average  difference is a two-sided test.

Ho : µ1 – µ2 = 0    Ha : µ1 – µ2 ≠ 0

 

  1. the critical Value For the test side, to determine the value t table, the value α = 0,02 we share two being  0,02/2 = 0,01

degrees of freedom  d.f. = n1+n2-2 = 8 + 4 – 2 =10

 

Thus the value of t is the sample t (0,01;10) = 2,764

The rejection only happens if the Ho | t table | > 2,764

 
   

 

 

 

                                  Ho

Ha                                                          Ha

                   -2,764  -0,035                 2,764

 

3.   Count Value

Premium

(Xi)

(Xi)²

Pertamax

(Xii)

(Xii)²

30

900

60

3600

45

2025

60

3600

90

8100

45

2025

60

3600

60

3600

60

3600

 

 

60

3600

 

 

30

900

 

 

60

3600

 

 

Ʃ            435

Ʃ          26325

Ʃ               225

Ʃ              12825

 

x1 = ƩXi = 435 = 54,375                                x2 = ƩXi = 225 = 56,                         

         n        8                                                             n       4

 

 

 

 

                        n (n – 1)

      = 8 (26325) – (435)²

                   8 (8-1)

     = 210600 – 189225

         56

     = 21375 = 381,7

56

S1 = √ 381,7 = 19,54

 

 

 

                        n (n – 1)

      = 4 (12825) – (225)²

                   4 (4-1)

     = 51300 – 50625

        12

     = 675 = 56,25

         12

S2 = √ 56,25 = 7,5

Sx1-x2 =

Sx1-x2 =

            =

            =

            =

            =  = 53,30

Then value t sample is t

x1-x2  = 54,375 – 56,25 = -1,875 = – 0,035

    Sx1-x2            53,30            53,30

 

4              Conclusion

Because t samples = -0,035 smaller than value t ( 0.01; 10 ) = 2,764, we accept Ho. Conclusions, no a significant difference between discharging fuel type pertamax and premium in influence period service.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER III

CONCLUDING CHAPTER

 

III.1 CONCLUSION

            From the analysis that we do can be concluded that:

  • no influence significant between discharging fuel type pertamax and premium in influence period servicenya.

 

  • fuel use not affecting time service motor vehicles.

 

  • observation, according to the use of premium more used because a very affordable price to the society compared with pertamax.

 

  • research with the use of samples some 12, is to use t-student to know the results obtained in a research.

 

Iklan

Resensi Novel

Judul Buku: I For You
Pengarang: Orizuka
Tahun Terbit: 2012
Jumlah Halaman: 379 halaman
Penerbit: Gagas Media
 
Sinopsis:
Buku ini menceritakan seorang anak perempuan cantik bernama Princessa Setiawan yang merupakan seorang putri di sekolahnya. Dia memiliki seorang sahabat kecil bernama Benjamin Andrews yang biasa di panggil Benji. Di sekolah keduanya dianggap sebagai pasangan yang fenomenal, mereka selalu tampil layaknya pasangan putri dan pangeran. Cessa juga mempunyai karakter polos malah cenderung sangat berterus terang tanpa memikirkan perasaan orang yang mendengar di sekelilingnya, sementara Benji memiliki karakter seorang gentleman sejati dan selalu ada disampin Cessa kapanpun dan dimanapun.
Cessa dan Benji tumbuh bersama, keduanya tidak pernah masuk ke sekolah formal dan memilih jalur homeschooling, Cessa sendiri merasa tidak masalah untuk sekolah dirumah karena ada Benji yang selalu menemaninya. Sampai akhirnya setelah dia menonton film Disney yang berjudul ‘High School Musical’ Cessa merengek pada ayahnya untuk bisa bersekolah di sekolah formal. Awalnya sang ayah, Dirga Setiawan tidak mengizinkan namun karena takut putri semata wayangnya itu stress akhirnya dia mengizinkan dengan jaminan Benji sebagai pelindungnya. Akhirnya Cessa dan Benji pun masuk ke sekolah formal yang kepala sekolahnya merupakan sahabat Dirga.
Perbedaan fisik pun menjadi kendala Cessa dan Benji untuk bisa berbaur dengan teman-teman yang lain. Cessa yang mempunyai darah Perancis memiliki wajah yang sangat cantik bak boneka, matanya berwarna hazel, kulitnya putih dan tubuhnya langsing, sementara Benji sangat tampan berkat darah Amerika yang mengalir dari sang ayah yang orang Amerika asli. Karena mereka selalu berdua sejak di kelas 10 banyak yang menyangka kalau mereka itu berpacaran padahal sebenarnya mereka hanya bersahabat dan lagi ada sesuatu dari diri Benji yang merupakan bagian dari diri Cessa. Sesuatu yang tidak dimiliki pria sempurna manapun.
Kemudian Cessa mendapatkan Surya, si anak miskin yang pintar dan bisa masuk ke sekolah elite itu melalui jalur beasiswa, sebagai teman sebangkunya. Cessa tidak senang dan mengatakan bahwa dia tidak suka dengan orang miskin, Surya pun kesal namun berusaha menahan diri untuk tidak melawan Cessa. Mereka tidak pernah akur lantaran Cessa suka sekali melontarkan pertanyaan dan pernyataan yang menyakitkan hati Surya. Namun kemudian hubungan mereka mulai membaik saat Surya tidak sengaja menyelamatkan Cessa dari serangan bola basket yang dimainkan murid-murid dilapangan basket. Cessa pun jatuh cinta pada Surya dan berusaha bersikap lebih baik demi menarik perhatian Surya.
Hal yang sama terjadi pada Benji, dia jatuh cinta pada Bulan yang tak lain adalah adik perempuan Surya. Benji menyukai Bulan karena dia berbeda dengan gadis-gadis kebanyakkan. Bulan sangat berani, tangguh dan bisa mengurus dirinya sendiri. Untuk beberapa saat Benji melonggarkan penjagaannya pada Cessa karena Cessa lebih tertarik berada di perpustakaan bersama Surya. Benji pun menghabiskan waktunya untuk menonton Bulan berlatih panah. Orang tua Surya dan Bulan meninggal karena ditabrak oleh orang dan mereka hanya tinggal berdua. Cessa pun bercerita kenapa dia tidak suka orang miskin karena dia teringat ibunya yang seorang PSK dari Perancis bernama Karenina, setelah melahirkan Cessa Karenina meninggalkan Cessa dirumah sakit dan akhirnya Dirga dan istrinya sepakat untuk mengangkatnya sebagai anak.
Tapi ternyata cinta mereka tidak bisa berjalan dengan mulus. Cessa mengidap penyakit bernama ‘Von Willerbrand’ itu adalah penyakit kelainan darah yang mengencer dan sulit mengalami pembekuan. Golongan darah Cessa adalah AB rhesus negative yang merupakan golongan darah yang langka. Hal inilah yang menyebabkan kenapa Cessa sangat bergantung pada Benji. Karena Benji memiliki golongan darah yang sama dengan Cessa. Surya dan Bulan tidak mengetahui hal ini dan menyebabkan hubungan mereka dengan Cessa dan Benji kandas.
Cessa pun dijauhi teman-temannya karena mereka beranggapan bahwa dia dan Benji sangat berlebihan. Tapi begitu mereka tahu yang sebenarnya mereka pun meminta maaf begitu pula Surya dan Bulan. Akhirnya Cessa pun mengambil keputusan untuk melepaskan Benji sebagai pangeran penjaganya dan pergi ke Amerika untuk sekolah fashion dan menjalani pengobatan untuk penyakit langkanya. Benji pun bisa dengan bebas menjalin hubungan dengan Bulan. Beberapa tahun kemudian Surya kuliah di Amerika dan takdir pun mempertemukannya dengan Cessa kembali.
 
Kelebihan:
·         Buku ini bisa menambah pengetahuan dan wawasan karena ada banyak hal-hal ilmiah yang dijelaskan disini
·         Pengorbanan Benji untuk sahabat kecilnya patut diacungi jempol karena terlihat sekali Benji tidak mementingkan kebahagiaannya sendiri
·         Alur ceritanya pun mengalir dan sangat jelas dan ending nya sama sekali tidak bisa tertebak kalau tidak membacanya langsung
 
Pemanfaatan:
·         Disini kita bisa mempelajari untuk tidak mementingkan kebahagiaan diri sendiri
·         Buku ini juga menjelaskan berbagai macam penjelasan ilmiah serta nama penyakit yang jarang didengar orang, bisa dibilang buku ini bisa menambah pengetahuan kita
·         Persahabatan yang erat antara Benji dan Cessa bisa dijadikan contoh bahwa sahabat yang baik akan melakukan apapun untuk kebahagiaan kita
·         Kerja keras Surya untuk bisa meraih cita-citanya juga patut dijadikan contoh bahwa semuanya bisa dilakukan jika ada kemauan dan fokus

LA 3 KLKP

Soal Laporan Awal Minggu 3

 

Buatlah Jurnal Umum & Jurnal Offset dari soal dibawah ini :

1. Nn. Kezia membuka rekening tabungan Rp.2.500.000 yang dananya berasal dari rek.deposito pribadinya.

 

JU :

Tabungan                    Rp. 2500000

Deposito                      Rp. 2500.000

 

JO :

05 Tabungan               Rp. 2500000

OD deposito               Rp. 2500000

 

04 OD tabungan         Rp. 2500000

Deposito                      Rp. 2500000

 

2. Bpk.Dika mendapat pinjaman investasi sebesar Rp.20.000.000 yang dananya diambil Rp.15.000.000 secara tunai dan sisanya dimasukkan ke rek.tabungan pribadinya.

 

JU :

Kas                              Rp.15000000

Tabungan                    Rp. 5000000

Pinjaman                     Rp.20000000

 

JO:

07 Kas                         Rp.15000000

OD pinjaman               Rp.15000000

 

06 OD CIS                  Rp.15000000

Pinjaman                     Rp.15000000

 

05 Tabungan               Rp. 5000000

OD pinjaman               Rp. 5000000

 

06 OD tabungan         Rp. 5000000

Pinjaman                     Rp. 5000000

3. Bank Gunadarma berhasil menjual SBPU yang diterbitkan oleh Bank Gunadarma sendiri sebesar Rp 200 juta  pada PT. XYZ, dan dana tersebut diterima secara tunai.

 

JU :

Kas                  Rp.200000000

Penjualan SBPU                     Rp.200000000

 

JO :

07 kas                          Rp.200000000

OD sundries                Rp.200000000

 

08 OD CIS                  Rp.200000000

Penj. SBPU                 Rp.200000000

4. Bpk.Dika melunasi pinjaman investasinya menggunakan cek Bank BNI sebesar Rp.10.000.000 dan sisanya secara tunai.

 

JU :

Kas                              Rp.10000000

Setoran kliring             Rp. 10000000

Pinjaman                     Rp. 20000000

JO :

07 kas              Rp. 10000000

OD pinjaman Rp. 10000000

 

06 OD CIS      Rp. 10000000

Pinjaman         Rp. 10000000

 

08 setoran kliring        Rp. 10000000

OD pinjaman               Rp. 10000000

 

06 OD sundries           Rp. 10000000

Pinjaman                     Rp. 10000000

 

5. Untuk keperluan membayar listrik Nn.Kezia menarik dana dari rek.Tabungannya sebesar Rp.500.000

JU :

Pembayaran listrik                   Rp.500000

Tabungan                                Rp.500000

JO :

02 Pembayaran listrik              Rp.500000

OD tabungan                          Rp.500000

 

05 OD umum                          Rp.500000

Tabungan                                Rp.500000

LA SIM (minggu ke 3)

Pengenalan Access

1. Apakah yang dimaksud dengan Microsoft Access ? Dan apa fungsinya ?

Pengertian Microsoft Access (atau Microsoft Office Access) adalah sebuah program aplikasi basis data komputer relasional yang ditujukan untuk kalangan rumahan dan perusahaan kecil hingga menengah., dan juga menggunakan tampilan grafis yang intuitif sehingga memudahkan pengguna.

Fungsi : digunakan untuk mengolah data dan aplikasi yang dapat membantu kita membuat sebuah aplikasi database dalam waktu yang relatif singkat. Biasanya digunakan untuk pembuatan aplikasi-aplikasi yang kecil.

2. Apakah yang dimaksud dengan Database, Tabel, Record, Dan Field ?

–          Database adalah sekumpulan data yang terintegrasi yang diorganisasi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan para pemakai di dalam suatu organisasi.

–          Table adalah tempat untuk menyimpan data.

–          Record adalah kumpulan dari field. Ex :pada baris dan tulisan.

–          Field adalah elemen data yang terkecil. Ex : gabungan karakter.

3. Hampir semua table yang akan dibuat memiliki sebuah field yang berfungsi sebagai Primary Key, apakah yang dimaksud dengan Primary key ?

Primary Key adalah atribut (field) yang dipilih untuk menentukan struktur storage pada organisasi file multi key, adapun key lainnya disebut dengan secondary key. Pengertian lainya Primary Key adalah suatu nilai dalam basis data yang digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi suatu baris dalam tabel. Nilai dari primary key adalah unik.

4. Apakah yang dimaksud dengan Relationship dan Foreign Key ?

–          relationship adalah relasi atau hubungan antara beberapa tabel dalam database. Definisi lain relationship ( kaitan dengan foreign key) adalah keterkaitan antara primary key dan foreign key (kardinalitas one to many atau many to many)

–          Foreign Key adalah Sebuah kumpulan field dalam satu relasi yang digunakan untuk me“refer” (menunjuk) ke suatu baris (tuple) pada relasi yang lain (harus berkorespondensi dengan primary key pada relasi yang kedua), seperti: ‘logical pointer.

5. Apa yang dimaksud dengan Report, dan Apakah dalam Microsoft Access menyediakan fungsi untuk membuat Report ?

Reports disediakan untuk membuat format pencetakan pada media kertas melalui printer. digunakan untuk merepresentasikan hasil olahan data menjadi informasi yang siap di cetak di lembaran kertas

Ya, ms. access menyediakan fungsi dalam pembuatan record yaitu dengan menggunakan fasilitas wizard dan bisa juga dibuat dengan cara manual.

Sumber : http://www.crayonpedia.org/mw/BAB_11_APLIKASI_BASIS_DATA_BERBASIS_MICROSOFT_ACCESS_AUNUR

LabManLan KLKP

LABORATORIUM MANAJEMEN LANJUT

UNIVERSITAS GUNADARMA

FAKULTAS EKONOMI

LAPORAN AKHIR

Nama    : Saskia Febriani

Kelas     : 3EA01

NPM      : 13209659

Tanggal:

Materi  :

                                                                                                                Paraf

                                                                                                                (                          )

1. Apa yang dimaksud dengan bank ?

Bank adalah sebuah lembaga intermediasi keuangan yang umumnya didirikan dengan kewenangan untuk menerima simpanan uang, meminjamkan uang, dan menerbitkan promes atau yang dikenal sebagai bank note.

2. Apa yang dimaksud dengan system aplikasi perbankan ?

System perbankan adalah penggunaan computer dan alat-alat pendukungnya dalam operasional perbankan yang meliputi pencatatan, perhitungan, peringkasan, penggolongan, dan pelaporan semua kegiatan di bidang perbankan.

 3.  Apa yang dimaksud dengan General Ledger ?

General ledger adalah kode dari suatu kumpulan rekening/account yang telah dikelompokan atau digolongkan berdasarkan manfaat, sifat, dan tujuan.

4.  Apa yang dimaksud dengan offset department?

Offset department adalah departemen yang didirikan untuk mengontrol transaksi yang melibatkan dua departemen (terjadi di dua departeman) atau lebih.

5. Sebutkan 2 metode pencatatan suatu transaksi! Jelaskan!

–          Cash basis : perusahaan mencatat beban di dalam akun keuangan ketika kas dikeluarkan atau dibayarkan

–          Accrual basis : perusahaan akan mencatat pendapatan ketika transaksi actual selesai bukan pada saat kas diterima.

6. Sebutkan syarat yang harus dipenuhi oleh general ledger !

Syarat :

–          harus balance

–          tidak pernah ada transaksi yang berdiri sendiri

–          terdiri dari 3 kelompok utama.

7. Buatlah jurnal umum dan jurnal offset untuk transaksi berikut :

  • Bapak Indra bermaksud untuk menjadi nasabah Gunadarma dengan membawa uang tunai sebesar Rp. 15.000.000, kemudian membuka rekening pada hari tersebut.

Jurnal Umum :

        Kas Pusat                                                             Rp. 15.000.000

                        Tabungan kantor pusat                                 Rp. 15.000.000

Jurnal Offset :

        05 OD CIS                                                             Rp. 15.000.000

                        Tabungan kantor pusat                                 Rp. 15.000.000

        07 Kas Pusat                                                       Rp. 15.000.000

                        OD Tabungan                                                     Rp. 15.000.000

  • Bank Gunadarma mendapat pinjaman dari sebuah perusahaan yang bernama simply fresh sebesar Rp. 950.000.000 secara tunai.

Jurnal Umum :

        Pinjaman                                                             Rp. 950.000.000

                        Kas Pusat                                                             Rp. 950.000.000

Jurnal Offset :

        07 OD Loan                                                         Rp. 950.000.000

                        Kas Pusat                                                             Rp. 950.000.000

        06 Pinjaman                                                       Rp. 950.000.000

                        OD CIS                                                                  Rp. 950.000.000

  • Ibu Olga menarik tunai saldo tabungannya sebesar Rp. 3.500.000

Jurnal Umum :

        Tabungan kantor pusat                                                 Rp. 3.500.000

                        Kas Pusat                                                                             Rp. 3.500.000

Jurnal Offset :

        07 OD Tabungan                                                               Rp. 3.500.000

                        Kas Pusat                                                                             Rp. 3.500.000

        05 Tabungan kantor pusat                                            Rp. 3.500.000

                        OD CIS                                                                                  Rp. 3.500.000

Paragraf Induktif dan Paragraf Deduktif

PARAGRAF INDUKTIF (khusus-umum)

Keanekaragaman gadget yang tercipta saat ini menimbulkan penggunanya untuk saling berkompetisi. Hal ini disebabkan karena mereka antara satu sama lain tidak ingin terlihat lebih terbelakang dari pemilik gadget lainnya. Seperti contoh teknologi pada handphone yang semakin lama semakin berlomba-lomba kecanggihannya.

Aplikasi yang disediakan oleh brand handphone tersebut menyebabkan para user untuk terus memburu,mencari tahu,dan memenuhi handphonenya dengan segala bentuk aplikasi yang disediakan. Walaupun sebenarnya, para pengguna gadget tidak terlalu memerlukan aplikasi tersebut dalam kebutuhannya.

PARAGRAF DEDUKTIF (umum-khusus)

Hasil penyaringan seleksi dari perguruan tinggi Universitas Gunadarma semakin lama semakin meningkat. Tahun 2009 tercatat kurang lebih 9000 mahasiswa yang ditampung di universitas ini. Pada tahun 2010 bertambah pesat hampir 11000 mahasiswa sedangkan tahun 2011 hampir 12000 mahasiswa yang berhasil menduduki bangku perkuliahan di universitas ini.

Hal ini memang layak terjadi karena dibandingkan dengan universitas swasta lainnya, Universitas Gunadarma termasuk universitas termurah dengan fasilitas dan tim pengajar yang berkualitas.

Metode Riset (Presentasi)

Pelanggaran Etika Bisnis dan Cara Penanggulangannya

  1. Bagaimana pandangan etika terhadap praktek bisnis yang curang?

Di kalangan orang awam, istilah etika bisnis terkadang masih terasa asing di dengar. Pada kenyataanya, penerapan etika bisnis pada perusahaan memang tidak dapat terlihat secara jelas. Mempelajari etika bisnis suatu perusahaan berarti kita harus memperhatikan apa saja proses yang terjadi di perusahaan tersebut.

Agar lebih gampang dimengerti, bisnis sama saja dengan dunia pergaulan kita. Dalam bergaul, kita harus memiliki etika agar dalam pergaulan kita tidak dijauhi oleh orang lain. Misalnya, dalam bergaul kita dilarang untuk menjelek-jelekan teman kita. Hal ini sangat harus dijaga agar tidak ada saling ketersinggungan agar terjadi keharmonisan di dalam dunia pergaulan. Begitu juga layaknya dengan dunia bisnis, kita harus saling menjaga nama baik perusahaan, walaupun perusahaan itu milik orang lain. Tidak boleh saling menjatuhkan dan juga saling menjelek-jelekan produk yang dikeluarkan oleh perusahaan lain walaupun walaupun hanya dengan sindiran semata. Hal ini dapat menghancurkan hubungan yang tadinya baik antara perusahaan.

Sebagai pebisnis yang baik, kita tidak boleh “menghalalkan segala cara” untuk mendapatkan hasil yang kita harapkan. Seperti yang diatas telah dijelaskan, misalnya dengan menjelek-jelekan produk dari perusahaan lain, hal ini sangat dilarang karena walaupun produk kita terjual namun produk orang lain bisa saja tidak laku karena omongan kita terhadap target konsumen yang kita incar.

Selain itu, pemakaian “wanita” dalam iklan juga termasuk pelanggaran kode etik dalam bisnis. Mengapa demikian? Karena sebagai wanita mereka bukanlah objek yang harus dijual dengan cara berlenggok-lenggok di hadapan kamera,padahal tujuan awalnya adalah hanya untuk menjual produk dari perusahaan yang membayar mereka.

Kasus lain dalam pelanggaran etika bisnis yang mungkin terlihat sangat “lumrah” adalah pemutusan hubungan kerja. Namun PHK yang dimaksudkan disini adalah PHK yang dilakukan secara sepihak tanpa pemberian pesangon oleh karyawan yang telah dipecat. Hal ini sangat sering terjadi, mungkin kita jarang sekali menyadarinya. Namun apabila kita memperhatikan, rata-rata kasus demonstrasi yang dilakukan oleh para karyawan yang telah di PHK memiliki kasus seperti demikian.

Sebagai pelaku bisnis, sudah seharusnyalah kita menerapkan cara berbisnis yang baik dan benar tanpa melanggar etika bisnis yang telah diterapkan. Masih banyak cara-cara yang baik dalam berbisnis yang dapat kita lakukan tanpa merugikan pihak manapun.

Berbisnis sehat dapat kita lakukan dengan mengatur strategi yang kita lakukan di dalam perusahaan. Misalnya dengan cara melakukan inovasi baru terhadap produk yang kita hasilkan. Namun inovasi produk juga harus mempertahankan kualitas dari produk yang kita hasilkan. Jangan melakukan inovasi hanya di tampilan luarnya saja. Dengan cara ini, kita tidak merugikan pesaing, karena kita benar-benar hanya memoles apa yang kita hasilkan.

Strategi pemasaran juga harus kita tingkatkan. Misalnya dengan cara menambah ruang lingkup target pasar. Dengan cara ini, kita dapat memperoleh konsumen lebih banyak dari sebelumnya. Memang harus dilakukan secara perlahan, namun tidak sesulit yang dibayangkan. Karena dengan memperluas pasar, secara otomatis, nama dari perusahaan juga akan dikenal oleh masyarakat yang lebih luas.

Dengan cara-cara diatas kita tetap dapat menjual hasil produksi dari perusahaan kita tanpa merugikan pihak manapun. Bersaing secara sehat dapat memberikan kepuasan yang tak ternilai dibandingkan dengan hanya dapat menjatuhkan perusahaan lain.

Sadarlah, bahwa pebisnis yang baik sangat memperhatikan etika dalam dunia bisnisnya. Sama dengan seseorang yang disegani, berarti dia bisa menempatkan diri dalam pergaulannya.

 2.      Contoh kasus real perusahaan atau produk yang melakukan kecurangan dan solusinya.

Contoh kasus real yang melakukan kecurangan dalam berbisnis adalah pada salah satu pihak (produsen) dendeng sapi manis yang ternyata dicampur dengan olahan daging babi. Saat diwawancarai, ternyata produsen menjelaskan hal ini dulakukan untuk menekan biaya produksi karena ia merasakan apabila dendeng sapi manis hanya dibuat dengan olahan daging sapi, maka membutuhkan modal yang sangat besar dan jarang dibeli oleh konsumen karena tingginya harga jual yang ia tawarkan. Kemudian ia menyiasati olahannya dengan mencampurkan olahan daging sapi dengan daging babi hutan yang berkeliaran di dekat rumahnya. Dengan melakukan hal ini, harga jual tidak terlalu tinggi sehingga hasil produksinya dapat dinikmati oleh para konsumennya dengan harga yang terjangkau.

Sangat miris melihat kasus diatas, seharusnya sebagai produsen, kita harus mementingkan kepuasan konsumen dalam berbagai aspek. Apabila daging babi diolah dengan daging sapi, berarti secara tidak langsung (tanpa mengetahui) para konsumen telah menikmati makanan yang tidak halal. Produsen sebagai pelaku bisnis sebaiknya benar-benar menjaga kualitas makanan (produksi) yang dihasilkannya. Apabila harga pokok dari bahan makanan terasa mahal, maka solusi yang seharusnya diambil adalah dengan menaikan harga jual. Atau fatalnya produsen mau tidak mau mencari produk lain untuk dijual (apabila memang modal pas-pasan). Jangan sampai karena kepentingan produsen, keselamatan dan kenyamanan konsumen menjadi di nomerduakan.

Culture and Consumer Behaviour: Comparisons between Malays and Chinese in Malaysia

International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2010

ISSN: 2010-0248 180

Culture and Consumer Behaviour: Comparisons

between Malays and Chinese in Malaysia

Fatt Sian, Lai, Shyue Chuan, Chong, Bik Kai, Sia and Bee Chen, Ooi


Abstract — Many researches have been conducted to

elucidate the decision process of consumers. This is mainly because of the fluidity of consumers’ decision process since it evolves over time and space, as well as in different environments such as culture and race. This study attempts to focus on a single community with dual ethnic groups, i.e. the Malays and the Chinese in Malaysia. Thus, this study differs from the previous studies in that it attempts to compare two ethnic

groups of diverse culture and religious background, within a single Malaysian community. The focuses here are on the students from Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) and University Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) because of their respective homogeneous racial composition of either purely Malay or Chinese youths, respectively. The findings of the MANOVA showed that there is difference in term of individualism/collectivism (IDV), uncertainty avoidance (UAI) and long-term orientation (LTO) between Malays and Chinese.

Despite the long-term co-existence between the Malays and the Chinese, as this study has revealed, these two ethnic groups, although different in their religions, cultures and the means by which wealth is being acquired, do reflect dissimilarities in their decision-making, choice of products, branding and responses

towards advertisements. Index Terms—Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions, power distance (PDI), individualism/collectivism (IDV), masculinity/femininity (MAS), uncertainty avoidance (UAI), and long-term orientation (LTO).

 

I. INTRODUCTION

Culture is not static. This is because of the evolving global environments. In this situation, culture is ever changing to adapt and to reflect the dynamism of the society as well as to maintain harmony within the society. Culture has immense influence on the values and lifestyles of individuals. Due to this dynamism people’s psychological construct changes and, therefore, their consumption patterns [1]. According to Belk [2], “multinationalization, world tourism, world sports and increasingly instantaneous world communication and transportation, there is a threat that cultures will be absorbed into a global commercial culture.” Belk further emphasized Manuscript received April 23, 2010. F.S. Lai is with the Faculty of Accountancy and Law, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Selangor, Malaysia (Corresponding author. Tel.: +603-90194722 Extension: 130; fax: +603-90197062. e-mail: laifs@utar.edu.my). S.C. Chong, is with the Faculty of Accountancy and Law, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Selangor, Malaysia (e-mail: chongsc@utar.edu.my). B.K. Sia is with the Faculty of Business and Law, Multimedia University, 75450 Melaka, Malaysia (e-mail: bksia@mmu.edu.my). B.C. Ooi is with the Faculty of Business and Law, Multimedia University, 75450 Melaka, Malaysia (e-mail: bksia@mmu.edu.my).

that such scenario can lead to global consumption homogenization. As a consequence, the homogenization of marketing intermediaries and marketing tools globally to reach out to the global masses has been prolific. This is highlighted in the case of McDonald where the burgers consumed in the West are very much the same as those being sold in the East. However, this has no longer been effective and applicable. The growing awareness and recognition of religion and specific culture have been known to have strong influence on consumer choice of products and decision making [3]. With the growing intensity in competition in recent years, marketers nowadays can no longer depend on stereotype marketing tools to expand their market shares globally but needed to have specific tailored marketing programmes and strategies to counter each group of consumer around the world that possess specific behavioral and consumption patterns in order to win these selected target market. Culture is a potent force in any social group whether it is an ethnic group, religious group or special interest group. Researchers generally agree that culture has a profound impact on individual values and life style, and it cannot be underestimated as it actually affects their thoughts, motives and value systems [4]. From the marketing perspectives, since culture explicates the value systems of the consumers that subsequently governs the interpretation of environment around the consumers, it plays an immense role in affecting the consumers’ affective and cognitive choices of consumption and spending [5]. The study of consumer cultures and the impact on consumers’ behaviour has far reaching implications for designing marketing strategies for any organization with intent of cross-cultural or cross-border investment [6] and there has been increasing recognition of the power of ethnic groups in determining the behaviour of consumers among marketers [7]. However, there is still very little research being carried out on how consumer values in different ethnic cultures influence consumer behaviour, especially among the Asians. [8][9]. The volume of researches in consumer behaviour has mostly been Western bias [10]. Moreover the researches have been mostly focus on the white, the blacks as well as the Hispanics.

Lately, there have been some researches on the oriental ethnic cultures such as the Japanese, the Koreans and the Chinese in Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China. It is noteworthy to mention that these countries are largely racially homogenous, which means the population is largely dominated by only one race. This is very unlike Malaysia where we see the co-existence of different races such as the Malays, the Chinese, the Indians and other minority ethnic groups with varied and different cultures, religions and practices within a single social system. It is in International Journal of Innovation, Management  and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2010 ISSN: 2010-0248 181 this context that Malaysia provides a good platform to further research on consumer behaviour especially with its rich cultural heritage and religious diversity. This research is a comparative study of two ethnic cultures, Malays and Chinese that have co-existed for a long time and their impact on consumption behaviour has been unprecedented. The objective of this study is to exploring and comparing the Malays and the Chinese Consumer Behaviour base on the five Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. Malaysia is a relatively small young nation with a population of about 26 million people that comprising of three main races – the Malays, the Chinese and the Indians, living together with other minorities even before its independence from the British Empire in 1957. This situation of acculturation of different races within the Malaysian community has prompted the current study. Hence, it is an interesting subject mainly because limited research in this area has been fully explored in Malaysia and none has been conducted in comparing the consumer behaviours based on the five Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. Additionally, the rapid growth of Malaysian economy in the last few decades have transformed the consumption power of all Malaysians, thus, making the subject of understanding and studying consumer behaviour in Malaysia even more interesting and challenging.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

There have been varied definitions on culture by different researchers and scholars. The plethora of definitions of culture bring to our attention that culture is indeed multi-faceted linking every area of our lives. Culture is not static but rather it is very dynamic – it changes and transforms – over time. Indeed, culture is a corporal value system that encompasses the members’ personalities, expressions, thinking patterns as well as the manners in problem solving. As the environments in which the members of the culture group interact continue to re-construct itself in order to adapt to the rapid changes of various factors, culture changes accordingly. In fact, culture can actually be summed up as the system of shared beliefs, values, customs, practices, behaviours, symbols and artifacts that the members of a group commonly use to interact and associate with one another within their environments and this system and values are transmitted from generation to generation through learning and instructions. It cannot be denied that the work of Hofstede is probably the most popular in cultural research. Hofstede [11] defines culture as “the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one category of people from those of another.” Thus, it is easily understood and the framework of the outcomes of Hofstede’s research reduces the complexities of culture into five dimensions, which can easily be applied to our daily lives. As such, the current study will focus on Hofstede’s model of five dimensions of cultural values, power distance (PDI), individualism/collectivism (IDV), masculinity/femininity (MAS), uncertainty avoidance (UAI) and long-term orientation (LTO). The Power Distance Index (PDI) identifies the “extent to which the less powerful members of organisations, institutions (like the family) and social group accept and expect that power is distributed unequally” [12]. It suggests that the level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. It also influences the way the leaders dispense power and execute authority as well as the manner in which the followers accept power. In a large power distance cultures, or the cultures that ranks high in the index, everybody accepts his/her place in the social hierarchy and accept the fact that those with power have the right to dispense authority and that it is natural to do so [1]. Japan is a typical Asian country with high Power Distance Index where submission to authority, such as the absolute submission to the Emperor is a good example. Similarly, the Malaysian society exhibits high power distance [11]. The relationships of the members is one of dependency and supportive such as the relationship between parents and children, teachers and students and employers and employees. The state of dependency naturally affirmed the superior-inferior concept of authority. On the other hand, cultures with low Power Distance Index, like the United States of America, authority does not come naturally and is often being challenged. The people here stress on equal opportunity and rights. People are independent and do not need each other as much as those in the high power distance. In summary, power distance indicates the society’s readiness to accept hierarchy and it has implications on consumer behaviour. Mooij [13] mentioned that elders in high power distance cultures play important roles in buying and consumption decision-making than those in lower power distance cultures. Country with high PDI is more tolerance to structure in leadership and more readily to accept assumed power and authority in the hierarchy. Individualism means the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. The individualist usually maintains the philosophy of “minding his/her own business” and he/she looks after his/her own welfare as well as those of his/her family or others that belong to the same group in exchange for their loyalty. Thus, the individualists maintain very loose bonds and the interests of individuals precede that of the group or the organisations they belong to [1][14]. On the collectivist side, it refers to societies in which the people are integrated into strong and cohesive in-groups since the day they were born. These people are highly inter-dependent and the norm or social system evolves out of group identity. In such society, people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often with extended families who continue protecting them in exchange for their unquestioning loyalty. The people here promote harmony and avoid “loss of face” since their identities are borne out of the social system they are in. They promote interdependence with each other and aim for the welfare of the group as against independence in the individualistic culture [15]. Masculinity/femininity (MAS) refers to the extent the society is characterised by either “masculinity” as seen in being dominance and assertiveness or “femininity” as reflected in caring, loving and interdependence. People in the masculine society will tend to strive for personal success and achievement [16]. Outwardly, this is usually reflected in preference for branded stuff which is linked to status and success [17]. People in masculine cultures are more concerned with brand names and expensive products; whereas those in feminine cultures tend to shun expensive International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2010 ISSN: 2010-0248 182 consumption and status symbols [14].

Life can be uncertain and unpredictable. There are some people who shun unpredictability and uncertainty, while there are others who do not mind such ambiguity and uncertainty. Uncertainty avoidance (UAI) refers to “the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations” [12]. Uncertainty avoidance reflects the culture’s willingness to take risks and, thus, the tolerance for uncertainty. The society with lower index in this category is more ready to accept risky situation. On the contrary, in a society with high uncertainty avoidance, unfamiliar and ambiguous situations, risky ventures are to be avoided at all costs. There is a clear distinction in UAI, with the Chinese scoring much lower than the Malays [18]. Thus, the Chinese would be more ready to assume risk and, therefore, would be more willing to try new products. Cultures with high uncertainty avoidance index will avoid investing in risky portfolio such as stocks; and they prefer to invest in precious metals and gems. Thus, there is a direct inference to link these people to those who tend to search for safety [13]. Values associated with Long Term Orientation are related to respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, persistence and perseverance, thriftiness and a strong sense of shame [19]. On the other hand, people with low index in Long Term Orientation, commonly referred to as Short Term Orientation, tend to be more willing to spend in order to keep up with the trend and social pressures of having to save “face”, thus, they are more concern with their social status. They also have fewer saving and are more impatient as they demand quick results [18].

III. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

In Malaysia, the Malays are mostly Muslims. This is equivalent to about 65 per cent of the total Malaysian population of 24 million people. Most of these Muslims belong to the Sunni sect in practice. This is one of the sects of Islam whereby the believers are much more mild-mannered, tolerant, and friendly, submissive to authority, peace-loving and put the well-being of the group as more important than personal desires. By definition under Section 160 (2) of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia it was explicitly spelled out that Malay is “a person who professes the religion of Islam, habitually speaks the Malay language, conforms to Malay customs…”. By practice it is meant that the cultures and customary practices such as wedding, festivals and funerals of this ethnic group are very much blended with the teaching of the religion. This is because the tenets of the Islamic faith require its followers’ behaviour to be “a complete submission to the will of Allah (God)” [20]. Thus it follows that there is a very strong likelihood that even in the situation of deciding to purchase certain goods and services, the guiding principles of the religion play a very significant role. Islam is the unifying factor of the family [20]. Consequently, in a macro-scale it is also the unifying element that binds the entire Malay race in Malaysia. The Malays are also a cohesive group in the Malaysian society where the younger ones are expected to follow and abide by the leadership of the elderly people in the unwritten adat isti’adat, or custom and norms, with respect to the behaviour of individual. Relationships among the Malays are largely hierarchical and collective. But in the modern life of the Malays, especially among the young adults, with increasing affluence, they were being exposed to influences of other cultures that portray different patterns of lifestyles and behaviour, particularly the Western cultures, through various media such as television, film media, internet and other large assortments of foreign print materials like the magazines and books. Essentially, the masses of the Malays in Malaysia are not confrontational and usually are easy going and a bit lay back with their lives; they prefer to leave the major issue of the community to the leader and seldom question their positions. Until today there are still many who would rather seek the quiet and peaceful life in the villages oblivion to the happenings outside their group. Consequently, in Hofstede’s cultural dimensions for Malaysia [21], the findings are consistent with the cultures and customs of the Malays in Malaysia. In Hofstede’s analysis [21], this predominantly Muslim community has a very high regard for authority and are willing to subject themselves to those in power as reflected in the very high PDI. This explains the Malays’ dominant culture of respect for the elders and parents, Furthermore, the Malay community are generally communal in basis rather than individualistic. The spirit of belonging takes precedent over private well-beings. Thus, decisions-making is often based on group interest over individual ideas. It is also interesting to note that both the Malays and the Chinese exhibit consistently high in the masculinity index as reflected among the oriental nations. Since the Chinese in Singapore and the Chinese in Malaysia are very closely related with many Malaysian Chinese having close relatives and friends in Singapore. Moreover, the close proximity of Singapore to Malaysia – at the southern tip of Peninsula Malaysia – is separated only by a one-and-a-half kilometre wide Straits of Johore. This Island State is also linked to Malaysia by a causeway where most of the peoples from both sides commute daily for work and leisure. Thus, this study will use the cultural dimensions of the Chinese in Singapore from Hofstede’s study as a mirror-image to deduce the cultural traits and practices of the Chinese in Malaysia as it bears many resemblances with that of the Singaporeans. Apart from its similarities in racial and religious compositions, the language usages are predominantly English, Mandarin and Chinese dialects. The economic background and the wealth of the Chinese in these two regions are also quite similar in the sense that both have to strive very hard to carve a comfortable living presently for themselves and their descendants and, at the same time, to save for the future. Although the Chinese cultural values have evolved and undergone rapid changes due to various factors such as economic advancement, social changes and acculturation, the values and system of overseas Chinese mostly have not been changed. They remain conformed to the doctrine of orthodox Confucianism with tint of Taoism (Yau, 1998). This follows that the Chinese still highly regard value such as face-saving where the pervasive influence of interpersonal relations like “Guan Xi”, particularly in business environment, demand one to behave honourably to safeguard the good name of the family and the clan. Since young the Chinese are taught to International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2010

ISSN: 2010-0248 183

respect for authority without questioning. They also hold strong belief in “Yuarn” or fate where it is belief that every event is pre-planned and beyond our control. Generally, like the Malays, the Chinese are cohesive, or clannish, and also collective and very often allowed the leaders, or elders to make many major decisions for them. Yau [22] found that there were changes in value systems of college students in China. He also maintains that, however, some of the traditional Chinese values are still held by these students.

This observation is also true of the Malaysian Chinese youths [23]. Putting Hofstede’s cultural dimensions of the Malays and the Chinese side-by-side, it is noted that the first three dimensions – PDI, IDV, MAS – are very much similar for both the races. This could be due to the general eastern orientation that exemplifies living in harmony with others, obeying rules, respect and be subdued to authority, seeking for order and stability in society [24]. Nevertheless, the findings showed that the Malays score slightly higher in PDI than the Chinese [21]. This indicates that the society is more structured than the Chinese with everyone, even within the family unit, having clear assumption of their respective role. From the angle of consumer behaviour, the Malays tend to refer and submit to the decision of the elders of the family more than the Chinese. Thus, it is hypothesised in hypothesis 1 (H1) as follow:

Hypothesis 1 (H1): There is difference in PDI between Malays and Chinese students.

Generally, the Asians are also more inclined towards cohesive lifestyle where collectivism supersedes individualism, group welfare is more important than individual’s interest. Both the Malays and the Chinese score almost the same and quite low in individualism/collectivism meaning these ethnic groups are highly coherent and collective. The consumers in these two ethnic groups are more willing to follow the group they belong in purchasing decision making. In the case of masculinity, both the Malays and the Chinese display a very strong male dominated society.

There does not seem to have any difference in the score for masculinity for both of these two ethnic groups. The low score in this case may indicate that branded stuff does not matter much to them. Based on the above discussion, the following hypotheses are proposed as follows:

Hypothesis 2 (H2): There is difference in IDV between Malays and Chinese students.

Hypothesis 3 (H3): There is difference in MAS between Malays and Chinese students.

The marked distinction between the Malays and the Chinese lies in the UAI with Chinese scores are rather low as compared to that of the Malays (Hofstede, 2003). This is mainly evolved as a result of the direct social, economic and

political environments they are in. They have come to terms with their legal position in the country and accepted the uncertainty of their futures; nevertheless, they also believe that they can bend this fate by working hard; the Chinese in Malaysia have also resorted to the fact that they have no one to turn to for their economic future and have to be practical in their approach of gathering and saving as much wealth as possible for themselves to ensure a stable and better future both for themselves and their children. On the another hand, the Malays usually resigned to entrust their life to fate or being ordained by Allah which they, as mortal-beings, have no control at all. Thus, the Chinese would be more ready to assume risk and, therefore, would be more willing to try new products. There is no LTO score for the Malays. The LTO score for the Chinese is about the same with that of the global average of about 40 although it is much lower than the Asian average of 85. Because of the lower score in LTO, the Chinese might possess more impulsive consumer behavior and less concern about the environments. Based on the above discussion, the following hypotheses are proposed as follows: Hypotheses 4 (H4): There is difference in UAI between Malays and Chinese students.

Hypotheses 5 (H5): There is difference in LTO between Malays and Chinese students.

IV. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

A. Sample and Data Collection

The undergraduates represent the better-educated group in the country, and they come from diverse socio-economic background from all over the country. Thus, undergraduates from two education institutions located in the Klang Valley in Kuala Lumpur, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) and University Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), are targeted as sample because of their respective racial composition of Malay and Chinese youths. Although the sample mostly a convenience sample, it is noted that the non-probability sampling techniques is used when generalization of the research findings is not the main concern of the research and is often used in exploratory studies [25]. To elicit the information, a total sample of about 300 respondents was recruited from January to February 2006 in these two universities. Personally administering questionnaires to groups of individual selected as mean to collect data. Out of the 255 questionnaires that were returned, 18 were incomplete and were not used in any of the analyses. As a result, only 237 completed questionnaires were received from two universities and were used for the analysis. The detailed of the descriptive analysis of the respondents’ characteristics are shown in Table I.

 

B. Measurement Development and Assessment

Items used to measure the five dimensions variables are adapted and modified from the previous works of Tai and Tam [26] and Kau at. el. [27]. All the variables measured by two to four variables by two observed variables on a 1 to 7 scale where 7 indicates highest of agreement. The Cronbach’s α for the five Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions exceeding the value of 0.6, except UAI and LTO, which indicates that the items form the scales, have reasonable internal consistency reliability (Table II). International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2010 ISSN: 2010-0248 184

TABLE I: DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS BY ETHNIC GROUP

 

Characteristics Malays (%) Chinese (%)

Sex

Male 23.9 37.2

Female 76.1 62.8

Year of Study

Year 1 38.0 40.7

Year 2 43.5 23.4

Year 3 and beyond 18.5 35.9

 

Religion

Islam 100.0 –

Christianity – 11.7

Buddhism/Taoism – 86.9

Others – 1.4

Place of Origin

Rural 43.5 19.3

Urban 56.5 80.7

Number of Cases (92) (145)

TABLE II: MEAN, CRONBACH’S Α AND TEST BETWEEN-SUBJECTS EFFECT

OF FIVE HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS

Dependent Variable Ethnic Group

Mean Cronbach’s α FPDI Malay 6.35 0.72 1.22

Chinese 6.20

IDV Malay 6.50 0.72 18.51* *

Chinese 5.98

MAS Malay 4.01 0.64 0.18

Chinese 4.08

UAI Malay 4.19 0.47 7.03**

Chinese 3.89

LTO Malay 4.58 0.42 11.83**

Chinese 4.18

** P < 0.01, Sample Size (Malays) = 92, Sample Size (Chinese) = 145.

V. DISCUSSION AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS

Base on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, five hypotheses were developed to compare the similarities and differences of the Malay and the Chinese students. The Malays scored higher than the Chinese in all the cultural dimensions except MAS (Table II). The findings of the MANOVA supported hypothesis 2, hypothesis 4 and 5. The higher score of IDV of Malay respondents signifies that the Malay families are shown to be more cohesive than the Chinese families. This can be attributed to their inherent culture of being loving and peaceful as well as their close adherence to the Islamic faith and the efforts of the Malay dominance government in Malaysia to inculcate “islamization” in every aspect of the lifestyles of the Malays.

This includes the cultures of submission and respecting the elders, accepting one’s destiny as fate ordained by “Allah” and modesty in dressing. They are also more concerned with the well-being of the family and take efforts to maintain harmony within the family.

The Chinese students seem to be more individualistic and have deviated slightly from the close adherent to the conservative teaching of Confucius like their fore-fathers where families are more important than self. This could be attributed to the fact that these youths are second and third generation immigrants from South China where the virtues of cohesiveness and close adherence to the Chinese cultural values have been diluted due to exposure to global modern cultures. Further more, the conversion of the Chinese to Christianity and mother religions or even becoming a free-thinker without any fixed religion could have also diminished the impact of traditional values of Chinese religions such as Taoism, Buddhism – thus their values and lifestyles. The Chinese can be classified as “horizontal and vertical individualist” where they attempt to do their own thing and at the same time strive to be the best; the Malays, on the other hand, can be more aptly confined to “horizontal and vertical collectivism” where they can merge themselves with the group and are ever ready to submit to the authorities and even to sacrifice for the group [28]. The Chinese emerged to be more acceptable to uncertainty than the Malays. The UAI scores for the Chinese are significantly lower than the Malays and therefore they are more tolerance to uncertainty and unfamiliar environments. Consequently, the Chinese are more willing to try on new things. The Chinese scores lower than the Malays in term of LTO and this affirms that they are more concern with their personal well-beings and pays very little regard to the environments. In addition, Chinese is more concerned with “face saving” and their personal social status. As compare to the long term, people in the short-term orientation are more independence and demand quick results.

The result on PDI is very much similar for both the races with the Malays scored slightly higher than the Chinese. This signifies that the Malays regard the hierarchy in the family as more important than the Chinese and, therefore, the Malays are more willing to accept their position in the family and society. This could be explained from their Islamic worldview where everything is pre-ordained by Allah – insha Allah, or God’s will. From this finding, in the Malay family, the parents have greater decision making rights than the Chinese family. Thus, the marketer knows the decision maker in the family and the marketing message must appeal to them. The finding on MAS is to a large extent consistent with the cultures for both the Malays and the Chinese. This may be because both these ethnic groups are largely male-dominance. Despite the long-term co-existence between the Malays and the Chinese, as this study has revealed, these two ethnic groups, although different in their religions, cultures and the means by which wealth is being acquired, do reflect dissimilarities in their decision-making, choice of products, branding and responses towards advertisements. This is especially true when religions and cultures, particularly Islam, in Malaysia, exerts strong influence on its followers to strictly adhere to its teachings. With this in mind, marketers must choose the appropriate channels of advertisement for any particular ethnic group. They also need to pay particular attention to the cultural factors in order to be more appealing not only to the selected target audience within the multi-cultures society but also to others. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2010

ISSN: 2010-0248

185

VI. CONCLUSION

Malaysia is a relatively small country. The rich fabrics of its multi-ethnicity community represent a large foray of Muslim society and Chinese population in the world. Hence, these foreign organisations will gain beneficial information because each ethnic groups exhibiting their very own unique cultural characteristics. With this knowledge, it benefits the foreign organization to target the appropriate market segments with appropriate cost effective strategies to reap in maximum profitability.

The present study was limited to a sample of university students in Malaysia. Future research could expand the sample to include more representative sample or young adult sample, in order to ensure the generalizability of the results. It will also be fruitful to investigate the impact of ethnicity and cultural factor links to consumer behaviour on a macro-scale especially among those who are financially independence or those who are gainfully employed with final decision-making authority.

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F.S. Lai. Graduated with professional qualification from the Institute of

Chartered Secretaries and Administrators (ICSA), United Kingdom, in 1982

and was subsequently conferred with the Associate membership of ACIS.

Obtained Master in Business Administration (MBA), in 1982. For

self-enhancement, He had also pursued professional qualifications in

Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM), United Kingdom, and National

Institute of Accountants, Australia. He was admitted into the fellow

fraternities of both the institutes as FCIM and FPNA, respectively.

He has been teaching accounting, marketing, strategic management,

entrepreneurship and business consulting skills in the university and

supervised students in their marketing projects. His research areas are in

consumer behaviour marketing and social sciences and have presented

research papers in conferences.

Tugas Etika Bisnis 2

Menurut kamus, istilah etika memiliki beragam makna berbeda. Salah satu maknanya
adalah “prinsip tingkah laku yang mengatur individu dan kelompok”. Makna kedua menurut kamus – lebih penting – etika adalah “kajian moralitas”. Tapi meskipun etika berkaitan dengan moralitas, namun tidak sama persis dengan moralitas. Etika adalah semacam penelaahan, baik aktivitas penelaahan maupun hasil penelaahan itu sendiri,sedangkan moralitas merupakan subjek.

1. Moralitas

Moralitas adalah pedoman yang dimiliki individu atau kelompok mengenai apa itu benar dan salah, atau baik dan jahat. Pedoman moral mencakup norma-norma yang kita miliki mengenai jenis-jenis tindakan yang kita yakini benar atau salah secara moral, dan nilai-nilai yang kita terapkan pada objek-objek yang kita yakini secara moral baik atau secara moral buruk. Norma moral seperti “selalu katakan kebenaran”, “membunuh orang tak berdosa itu salah”. Nilai-nilai moral biasanya diekspresikan sebagai pernyataan yang mendeskripsikan objek-objek atau ciri-ciri objek yang bernilai, semacam “kejujuran itu baik” dan “ketidakadilan itu buruk”. Standar moral pertama kali terserap ketika masa kanak-kanak dari keluarga, teman, pengaruh kemasyarakatan seperti gereja, sekolah, televisi, majalah, music dan perkumpulan.

Hakekat standar moral :

1. Standar moral berkaitan dengan persoalan yang kita anggap akan merugikan secara serius atau benar-benar akan menguntungkan manusia.
2. Standar moral tidak dapat ditetapkan atau diubah oleh keputusan dewan otoritatif
tertentu.
3. Standar moral harus lebih diutamakan daripada nilai lain termasuk (khususnya)
kepentingan diri.
4. Standar moral berdasarkan pada pertimbangan yang tidak memihak.
5. Standar moral diasosiasikan dengan emosi tertentu dan kosa kata tertentu.
Standar moral, dengan demikian, merupakan standar yang berkaitan dengan persoalan yang kita anggap mempunyai konsekuensi serius, didasarkan pada penalaran yang baik bukan otoritas, melampaui kepentingan diri, didasarkan pada pertimbangan yang tidak memihak, dan yang pelanggarannya diasosiasikan dengan perasaan bersalah dan malu dan dengan emosi dan kosa kata tertentu.

2. Etika

Etika merupakan ilmu yang mendalami standar moral perorangan dan standar moral masyarakat. Ia mempertanyakan bagaimana standar-standar diaplikasikan dalam
kehidupan kita dan apakah standar itu masuk akal atau tidak masuk akal – standar, yaitu
apakah didukung dengan penalaran yang bagus atau jelek. Etika merupakan penelaahan standar moral, proses pemeriksaan standar moral orang atau masyarakat untuk menentukan apakah standar tersebut masuk akal atau tidak untuk diterapkan dalam situasi dan permasalahan konkrit. Tujuan akhir standar moral adalah mengembangkan bangunan standar moral yang kita rasa masuk akal untuk dianut.
Etika merupakan studi standar moral yang tujuan eksplisitnya adalah menentukan standar yang benar atau yang didukung oleh penalaran yang baik, dan dengan demikian etika mencoba mencapai kesimpulan tentang moral yang benar benar dan salah, dan moral yang baik dan jahat.

3. Etika Bisnis

Etika bisnis merupakan studi yang dikhususkan mengenai moral yang benar dan salah. Studi ini berkonsentrasi pada standar moral sebagaimana diterapkan dalam kebijakan, institusi, dan perilaku bisnis. Etika bisnis merupakan studi standar formal dan bagaimana standar itu diterapkan ke dalam system dan organisasi yang digunakan masyarakat modern untuk memproduksi dan mendistribusikan barang dan jasa dan diterapkan kepada orang-orang yang ada di dalam organisasi.

Adanya etika bisnis yang diterapkan oleh masing-masing perusahaan ternyata membawa perbedaan yang dapat menjadikan hal tersebut sebagai ciri khas dari suatu negara. Hal ini disebabkankarena adanya perbedaan kebudayaan dan bagaimana cara dari masing-masing individu untuk beretika. Beriku ciri-ciri yang membedakan masing-masing negara :

1. Inggris

Orang Inggris sangat dikenal menghormati etika dan berharap orang lain melakukan hal yang sama. Oleh karena itu bila Anda ingin melakukan kerja sama bisnis dengan mereka, lakukanlah dengan penuh hati-hati dan penuh keramahtamahan yang sesuai dengan etika di negara mereka. Seperti juga Asia, masyarakat Inggris sangat menghormati orang-orang yang lebih tua dan sangat memperhatikan pakaian. Jadi gunakanlah pakaian yang agak konservatif dengan warna yang tidak terlalu terang, seperti biru tua, hitam atau abu-abu.

Mengantrelah dengan tertib :

1. Perhatikan kata-kata yang Anda gunakan. Perlu diperhatikan, begitu banyak kata-kata yang bisa digunakan dan memiliki arti sama dalam bahasa Inggris. Meski begitu bahasa Inggris yang digunakan di Inggris dan Amerika memiliki banyak perbedaan. Ada dua hal yang bisa Anda lakukan: (1) Bila di saat perbincangan Anda menemukan kata yang jarang dipakai atau pembicaraan yang tak Anda mengerti, jangan ragu untuk meminta maaf dan menanyakan maksudnya pada mereka. (2) Jangan lupa mencari kamus bahasa Inggris tentang istilah atau idiom yang umum digunakan.

2. Jangan lupa membuat janji dan kesepakatan sebelum pertemuan diadakan. Ingat orang Inggris sangat terorganisasi dan memperhatikan agenda kerja mereka.

3. Jangan bingung dengan kondisi geografi negara tersebut. Perlu Anda ketahui, Inggris, Skotlandia dan Wales adalah wilayah yang berbeda. Ketiganya hanya disatukan dengan satu pemerintahan yang disebut Great Britain. Tapi ketika berbicara tentang Irlandia Utara, maka sebutannya menjadi United Kingdom.

4. Hindari membicarakan berbagai topik yang sifatnya sensitif, seperti permasalahan yang terjadi di kerajaan, konflik di Irlandia Utara atau berbagai hal yang sifatnya pribadi.

5. Jangan lupa mengantre dengan tertib. Seperti juga Singapura, bangsa Inggris sangat patuh terhadap peraturan. Ikutilah semua peraturan yang berlaku, bila Anda ingin dihormati selama di sana.

6. Jangan bersikap terlalu berlebihan, bersuara keras, bersikap kurang sopan atau kurang pantas lainnya.

2. Jerman

Perilaku dan etika merupakan hal paling utama bila Anda ingin melakukan bisnis dengan pebisnis Jerman. Mereka pada umumnya tidak tertarik dengan hadiah atau iming-iming keuntungan yang banyak. Yang mereka utamakan adalah bisnis yang bersih dan sesuai dengan aturan. Perusahaan-perusahaan di Jerman sangat bangga dengan efisiensi dan kemampuan mereka yang bisa dipercaya.

Jangan sepelekan disiplin

1. Bersikaplah tepat waktu. Hal ini sifatnya sangat penting dan sangat diharapkan oleh mereka.

2. Jabat tangan adalah salam resmi yang mereka lakukan, dengan genggaman yang mantap dengan satu satu dua kali ayunan. Mintalah kartu nama mereka setelah bersalaman dan perhatikan jabatannya. Bila mereka memiliki gelar seperti profesor atau doktor, sebutlah gelar itu sebelum nama mereka. Kecuali bila mereka meminta Anda mengabaikan gelar itu.

3. Berpakaianlah yang rapi, konservatif dan sesuai acara. Pakaian atau sepatu yang kurang sesuai dengan acara akan menimbulkan kesan yang salah dari tuan rumah.

4. Pertemuan bisnis disertai acara makan bukanlah hal yang biasa di Jerman. Jadi bila Anda mendapat undangan makan di rumah rekanan Anda yang biasanya jarang terjadi jangan lupa membawa bunga, wine, atau hadiah lainnya yang elegan.

5. Hindari ucapan yang berlebihan. Jangan memuji atau mengatakan sesuatu secara berlebihan. Bagi orang Jerman hidup tidak selalu “menyenangkan” dan tidak ada produk yang “terbaik” di dunia. Sehingga kata-kata hiperbola akan mereka anggap tidak bisa dipercaya.

6. Tidak perlu memberi cindera mata pada mereka, kecuali Anda mendapat undangan makan atau bertandang ke rumahnya.

7. Bahasa Jerman adalah bahasa yang termasuk banyak digunakan di Eropa. Tapi di negara itu sendiri setiap daerah punya dialek sendiri-sendiri. Hindari pernyataan yang mengatakan bahasa di daerah tertentu lebih mudah dimengerti dari yang lain, karena itu bisa menyinggung perasaan mereka.

8. Jaga percakapan Anda. Orang Jerman biasanya enggan membicarakan pekerjaan di waktu santai atau saat makan. Ini merupakan tantangan bagi Anda untuk tetap menjaga komunikasi dengan mencari topik lain selain masalah pekerjaan.

9. Pria Jerman umumnya akan mendahului masuk ke sebuah ruangan sebelum perempuan, terutama di tempat-tempat umum seperti di restoran dan lainnya. Ini adalah tradisi lama mereka, karena pria harus memastikan terlebih dahulu apakah ruangan tersebut aman atau tidak.

10. Berbisik-bisik dengan orang lain saat rapat adalah hal yang biasa di Jerman. Bisa jadi mereka berbisik-bisik karena percakapan itu sifatnya rahasia dan tidak bisa diutarakan pada semua yang hadir di rapat.

11. Mengunyah permen karet, membungkukkan badan dan menaikkan kaki ke atas meja merupakan perilaku tidak sopan bagi mereka. Hindari menyatakan “OK” dengan mengacungkan ibu jari, karena mereka menganggap hal itu tindakan yang sangat kasar.

12. Ketika menjawab telepon, selain mengucapkan “Hello”, jangan lupa menyebutkan pula nama Anda.

3. Italia

Negara ini adalah negara dengan tingkat perekonomian terbesar ke-12 di Eropa. Hampir keseluruhan bisnis di negara tersebut dikuasai oleh laki-laki. Jumlah perempuan yang bekerja di sektor publik bahkan tak mencapai 36%, itu pun sangat jarang yang mampu menjabat di berbagai posisi penting maupun pembuat keputusan. Sedangkan para perempuan lainnya, lebih banyak terfokus di sektor domestik sebagai ibu rumah tangga.

1. Masyarakat Italia sangat menjunjung tinggi sikap kekeluargaan dan pertemanan, sehingga berpengaruh dengan kebiasaan mereka di kantor. Mengucap salam dengan cara berpelukan, mencium pipi, memberi hadiah atau mengundang makan di rumah adalah salah satu tradisi mereka sebagai tanda penerimaan.

2. Orang-orang Italia sangat dikenal dengan sikap demonstratifnya, percakapan selalu dilakukan secara meledak-ledak dengan bahasa yang berbunga-bunga dan ungkapan yang diindah-indahkan.

3. Di dunia bisnis, orang Italia sangat tangguh, santai, berpakaian modis dan profesional di bidangnya.

4. Orang-orang Italia sudah banyak yang mahir menggunakan bahasa Inggris, terutama pada mereka yang terpelajar. Meski begitu, cobalah meminta bantuan penerjemah untuk menghindari kesalahpahaman.

5. Ulurkan tangan Anda terlebih dulu saat bertemu dengan rekanan Anda yang orang Italia. Jangan takut untuk mengayunkan dan menjabat tangan dalam waktu yang lama.

6. Jangan lupa menggunakan nama belakang sebagai nama panggilan, tapi akan lebih baik lagi bila ditambah dengan sebutan Signor (Tuan) atau Signora (Nyonya) di awalnya.

4. Perancis

Hampir sebagian besar perempuan Perancis bekerja di luar rumah, tapi tak banyak yang bisa mencapai posisi tinggi. Pada dasarnya pria Perancis-terutama generasi tua-mempunyai pandangan negatif mengenai perempuan yang bekerja di luar rumah. Meski begitu, bangsa Perancis tetap menerima dengan tangan terbuka para perempuan pebisnis yang mereka ajak kerja sama, terutama mereka yang berasal dari Amerika dan Eropa.

Jangan terlalu sering tersenyum

1. Hindari memanggil mereka dengan nama pertama tanpa embel-embel Monsiuer (Tuan), Madame (Nyonya) atau Mademoiselle (Nona). Jika Anda bisa berbahasa Perancis, selalu gunakan kata ganti kedua formal (Vous atau Anda) kecuali bila Anda sudah sangat akrab dengan rekan bisnis Anda tersebut.

2. Saat disuguhi minuman, tunggulah hingga gelas semua orang telah terisi sebelum meminumnya. Perhatikan apakah tuan rumah akan menawarkan para tamunya untuk bersulang, ucapkan Sante (baca: shan-tay) yang berarti sehat selalu. Setelah itu Anda boleh minum.

3. Selalu ingat urutan garpu dan sendok yang harus Anda gunakan, dari makanan pembuka hingga penutup, semua sesuai dengan table manner.

4. Pertimbangkan sebelum Anda melakukan salam dengan mencium pipi, karena salam ini hanya digunakan pada orang-orang yang sudah mengenal Anda dengan baik. Ketika Anda berjabat tangan dengan seorang pria Perancis dan ia menyondongkan badannya ke depan, bersiaplah untuk mendapatkan ciuman di pipi. Bila ia mencium ke dua pipi Anda, itu artinya Anda telah diterima baik oleh mereka.

5. Bersiaplah berjabat tangan dengan banyak orang. Para pebisnis asal Perancis akan banyak menjabat tangan Anda, karena jabat tangan adalah ungkapan salam atau selamat. Umumnya mereka akan melakukannya di setiap pertemuan.

6. Jangan terlalu banyak memuji secara berlebihan, karena orang Perancis tidak terlalu suka mendapatkan pujian. Mereka sebenarnya lebih suka mendapatkan kritik. Jadi bila Anda mendapatkannya jangan diambil hati karena begitulah kebiasaan mereka.

7. Jangan lupa untuk menyapa setiap orang yang hadir saat memasuki ruangan. Sapalah dengan bonjour (selamat pagi) sebelum menyapa mereka.

8. Jangan terlalu banyak tersenyum, karena orang Perancis sangat jarang tersenyum. Umumnya mereka tersenyum bila memang mereka punya alasan untuk itu.

9. Orang Perancis menganggap rayuan sebagai suatu hal yang biasa, sehingga bila Anda dirayu berusahalah menguatkan hati dengan tidak melayani rayuan mereka. Bila tidak, Anda akan mendapat masalah yang bisa mengakibatkan bisnis Anda mengalami kegagalan.

10. Tetaplah berpegang pada sikap sopan dan ramah. Walaupun orang Perancis umumnya kurang ramah, namun pemerintah mereka sudah berusaha mengimbau agar masyarakatnya bisa bersikap sedikit ramah kepada para pendatang.

5. AUSTRALIA, KANADA DAN AMERIKA

Pada umumnya Australia memiliki etika bisnis yang hampir sama dengan Amerika dan Kanada yang lebih terbuka di setiap negara. Namun saat Anda datang ke Australia maupun Kanada, ada baiknya mempersiapkan diri dengan bahasa yang berbeda dengan bahasa Inggris Amerika. Selain itu, orang Australia dan kanada tidak terlalu suka dengan berbagai ungkapan berlebihan, seperti “yang terbaik”, “terhebat” atau “yang besar” yang mungkin agak bermasalah bagi orang Amerika yang terbiasa dengan ungkapan-ungkapan seperti itu. (Rahmi/ Do’s and Taboo’s Around the World)